An offer is a proposal by one person to another to enter into a contract. The term offer is defined under

Section 2 (a) as under: ‘When one person signifies to another, his willingness to do or abstain from doing anything with a view to obtaining the assent of the offer, to such an act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal’.

Essential Elements of a Valid Offer:

  1. The ‘offer’ must be with the intent to create a legal relationship.
  2. The offer must be certain and definite. It must not be vague.
  3. The offer must be express or implied.
  4. The offer must be distinguished…

Network Topology

The configuration, or topology, of a network is key to determining its performance. Network topology is the way a network is arranged, including the physical or logical description of how links and nodes are set up to relate to each other.

There are numerous ways a network can be arranged, all with different pros and cons, and some are more useful in certain circumstances than others. Admins have a range of options when it comes to choosing a network topology, and this decision must account for the size and scale of their business, its goals, and budget.

Several tasks go…


Indian Contract Act, 1872

The Law of Contract constitutes the most important branch of Mercantile or Commercial Law. It is the foundation upon which the superstructure of modern business is built.

It affects everybody, more so, trade, commerce and industry. It may be said that the contract is the foundation of the civilized world.

What is Contract?

A Contract is an agreement enforceable by law [Section2(h)]. An agreement is enforceable by law, if it is made by the free consent of the parties who are competent to contract and the agreement is made with a lawful object and is for…


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The strategic brand management process involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and message brand equity.

Developing a strategy that successfully sustains or improves brand awareness, strengthens brand associations, emphasizes brand quality and utilization, is a part of brand management.

Brand Management is the function of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line, or brand. It seeks to increase the product’s perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity.

What is Brand Management, Importance, Definition

Strategic Brand Management Process

Strategic brand management process is important for creating and sustaining brand equity. Developing…


Depending on the context of its use, an endorsement can have different meanings. An endorsement may be a signature authorizing the legal transfer of a negotiable instrument between parties.

Endorsements can also be amendments to contracts or documents, such as life insurance policies or driver’s licenses.

A public declaration of support for a person, product, or service is also called an endorsement. For example, a WNBA basketball player may endorse a pair of Nike-brand shoes in a commercial.

Meaning of Endorsement:

The act of a person who is holder of a negotiable instrument in signing his or her name on…


Soft skills are character traits and interpersonal skills that characterize a person’s relationships with other people. In the workplace, soft skills are considered to be a complement to hard skills, which refer to a person’s knowledge and occupational skills. Sociologists may use the term soft skills to describe a person’s emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) as opposed to intelligence quotient (IQ).

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Soft skills have more to do with who people are, rather than what they know. As such, they encompass the character traits that decide how well one interacts with others and usually are a definite part of an individual’s personality…


Communication is the process of passing information and understanding the same from one person to another. Thus, communication means understanding the information, facts, or opinions of someone.

Types of Communication
Types of Communication

Communication may be in various forms, it may be classified on the following basis:

  1. On the basis of Organisational Structure

2. On the basis of Direction

3. On the basis of Mode of Expression

Types of Communication:

  1. Formal Communication: Formal communication is a flow of information through formally established channels in an organization. These type of communication may be oral or written.
  2. Informal Communication: Informal Communication refers to communication on the basis of personal relations.
  3. Downward…

Grapevine communication is a form of informal communications in business that develops within an organisation. Large organisations, where there are many people who are working closely, create certain unofficial or informal communication channels.

Grapevine Communication
Grapevine Communication

These channels exist with or without authorised patronage. Even though they are secretly and officially patronised, they are not reliable. This kind of communication is usually known as “Grapevine” communication.

Types of Grapevine Communication

There are 4 types of grapevine communication are:

It can seep from person to person in a strictly linear fashion. The information takes time to spread in this fashion.

In some circumstances, a person goes around communicating…


Communication is the process of passing information and understanding the same from one person to another. Thus, communication means to understand information, facts or opinions of someone.

Communication may be in various forms, it may be classified on the following basis:

On the basis of Organisational Structure

In the organization structure of enterprise communication, there are two types of communication:

Formal communication is a flow of information through formally established channels in an organization. These type of communication may be oral or written.

  • Mostly controlled by managers
  • It is hierarchical in nature and associated with the superior and subordinate relationship
  • Generally linked with formal status and…

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Discharge of contract means the termination of a contractual relationship between parties”. A contract is said to be discharged when it ceases to operate, i.e. when the rights & obligations created by it come to an end.

Discharge of Contract Meaning

Discharge of a contract means termination of contractual relation between the parties to a contract.

Modes of Discharge of Contract

The contract may be discharged in the following six modes of discharge of contract discussed as follows:

  1. Discharge by performance
  2. Discharge by mutual consent or agreement
  3. Discharge by impossibility of performance
  4. Discharge of a contract by lapse of time
  5. Discharge of a contract by operation of law
  6. Discharge…

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