10 Types Of Communication | Different Form | Business 2020

Communication is the process of passing information and understanding the same from one person to another. Thus, communication means to understand information, facts or opinions of someone.

Communication may be in various forms, it may be classified on the following basis:

On the basis of Organisational Structure

In the organization structure of enterprise communication, there are two types of communication:

Formal communication is a flow of information through formally established channels in an organization. These type of communication may be oral or written.

  • Mostly controlled by managers

Advantages of formal communication

  • Follows the principle of unity of command

Disadvantage of formal communication

Informal Communication

Informal Communication refers to communication on the basis of personal relations. It is a type of communication which is unstructured, unofficial and unplanned.

  • It does not follow the formal channels established by the management

Informal communication is a result of social interaction and satisfies the natural desire of people to communicate with each other. Informal communication is helpful in countering the effects of work fatigue and monotony and serving as a source of job-related information.

It is also referred to as grapevine communication. Grape wine communication carries unofficial information. It is not a reliable source of communication. Managers should be very careful about such communication.

Advantages of informal communication

  • It is a flexible and reliable channel of communication

Disadvantages of informal communication

  • It creates misunderstanding and uncertainty

On the basis of Direction

On the basis of directions communication may be of four types of communication:

Downward Communication

Communication that takes place from superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is known as downward communication.

Such type of communication may be in the form of orders, instructions, policies, programmes etc. It may be written or verbal.

The following messages are induced in this type of communication:

Advantages of downward communication

  • It is helpful in controlling the subordinate

Disadvantages of downward communication

  • It tends to promote one-way communication

When message are transmitted from bottom to top of the organisational hierarchy, it is known as upward communication.

The main function of upward communication is to supply information to top management. It is essentially participative in nature and can flourish only in a democratic organisational environment. It may be in the form of progress report, suggestions, grievances, complaints etc.

Advantages of upward communication

Disadvantages of upward communication

Horizontal Communication

When communication takes place between two or more persons who are working at same levels it is known as horizontal communication.

This type of communication takes place mostly during a committee meeting or conferences. The main object of such communication is to establish inter-departmental co-ordination.

Advantages of horizontal communication

Disadvantages of horizontal communication

  • There is a lack of motivation to communicate

Diagonal Communication

Diagonal communication is an exchange of information between the persons at a different level across departmental lines.

This type of communication is used to spread information at different levels of an organization to improve understanding and co-ordination so as to achieve organisational objectives.

Thus, where the persons who are neither working in the same department nor has similar level are communicating, it is said to be diagonal communication. It cuts across the levels of organisational structure.

Advantages of diagonal communication

  • It increases organisational effectiveness

Disadvantages of diagonal communication

  • It violates the principle of unity of command

On the basis of Mode of Expression

Non Verbal Communication

Communication through expressions, gestures or posture is nonverbal communication. It refers to the flow of information, through facial expressions, tone of voice and other body movements.

In other words, it is a type of communication other than words. It conveys the feeling, emotions, attitude of a person to another. A person can communicate his feeling to others quickly and economically by using a non-verbal form of communications. This does not require the use of words as a person can express his feelings by his body language.

Some important of nonverbal communication are:

  • Body Language: Posture, Gesture, Eye Contact, Silence etc.

Advantages of non verbal Communication

  • It is reliable source of information

Disadvantages of non verbal Communication

  • Expressions and gestures are seen by anyone so it lacks secrecy.

Verbal Communication is an exchange of information by words either written or oral. Verbal communication consists of speaking, listening, writing, reading etc. It is the most preferred mode of communication.

It may be of two types of Verbal Communication:

When a message is expressed through spoken words, it may be either through face to face conversations or with the help of electronic mode such as telephone, cellular phone, etc.

It may also be in the form of informal conversation, group discussions, meeting etc. It is a more effective means of exchange of information because the receiver not only hears the message but also observes the physical gestures of the speaker.

Advantages of oral communication

  • Oral communication is useful in providing good leadership

Disadvantages of oral communication

Written Communication

When opinions are exchanged in written form, rather than by spoken words, it is knows as written communication.

It may be expressed through charts, pictures and diagrams. It includes newspapers, reports, letters, circulars magazines etc. While using written communication, words should be select very carefully because message ones sent can not be altered. it is formal in nature and cannot be overlooked.

Advantages of written communication

  • It provides a future reference: it becomes a permanent record and beneficial for formulating new policies.

Disadvantages of written communication

  • It is a time and money consuming way of communication
  1. Murphy, Hildebrandt (1991), Effective Business Communication, McGraw Hill, New York.

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Originally published at https://www.geektonight.com on April 20, 2020.

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